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Ten New Birds Discovered On ‘Lost Island Worlds’ In The South Pacific

Ten new species and subspecies of birds, with distinct songs and genetics, have been discovered on three tiny under-explored islands off Indonesia’s eastern coastAdult male Togian jungle-flycatcher (Cyornis omissus omississimus) was discovered on the islands of … [+] Togian and Batudaka in the Togian Archipelago, a group of islands between the northern and eastern peninsulas…

12_JAE_highres

Birds are the best-known taxonomic group of animals on Earth, with almost 11,000 described species, and yet, scientists still discover an average of five or six new species every year. But this year, an international team of scientists surpassed this annual average: they’ve just published a scientific paper where they describe ten birds that are new to science that live on three under-explored South Pacific islands. These islands — Taliabu, Peleng and Batudaka — are located in one tiny area of the planet, a region off the eastern coast of Sulawesi, Indonesia, known as Wallacea. This designation was derived from British naturalist and explorer Alfred Russel Wallace (1823 – 1913), who explored and conducted extensive fieldwork in this area of the South Pacific Ocean during the 19th century. Wallace was the co-discoverer, along with Charles Darwin, of the Theory of Evolution and, as if that was not enough, he also discovered the scientific field of Island Biogeography.

Wallacea is a fascinating part of the world where Asia and Australia meet. This region is also known as the Malay Archipelago (see detail inset, Figure 1). It is sprinkled with many hundreds of small shallow-water Indonesian island chains that are mostly of volcanic origin separated by deep-water straits that lie between the colliding Asian and Australian continental plates. Deep-water trenches separate this Indonesian archipelago into two distinct zoogeographical regions: a western portion in which the animals are largely of Asian origin, and an eastern portion where the fauna originated from Australia. This faunal divide that runs through Wallacea is known as Wallace’s Line.

It is here, on a few small islands nestled next to the spindly, spidery arms of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, where an international team of scientists discovered five new species and five new subspecies of birds in just one six-week expedition.

New bird discoveries stem from insights into island biogeography

Although the history of glacial land connections is a well-known fact that has been appreciated by many people — as well as by many ornithologists — for scores of decades, I’ve never heard of anyone adopting insights gathered from sea level depth specifically to find new species. But the inspiration for devising this novel and innovative approach to locate new species stemmed from necessity.

“In 2009 at the end of my PhD, when I was a much younger man, I had a spare month for some ornithological exploration, and I wanted to invest it well”, said lead author and evolutionary and conservation biologist, Frank Rheindt, an Associate Professor at the National University of Singapore. His special focus is using a variety of genomic techniques combined with good old-fashioned field work to discover and characterize cryptic bird species that are new to science.

As he traveled around Sulawesi, the newly-minted PhD wanted to explore some of its nearby islands and look for new bird species. But because there are so many islands to choose from, how could he narrow down his choices to only those islands that might have more endemic species that are not shared with any other landmass on Earth before visiting them? Professor Rheindt looked to island biogeography to inform his choices.

Not all islands are truly islands in the biogeographic sense because global sea levels can recede by as much as 120 meters (394 feet) during ice ages. Thus, small islands on continental shelves or in shallow seas would have been mountain tops on a larger contiguous land mass as recently as 15,000 years ago. Not only could modern humans walk from one ‘island’ (mountain top) to the other without getting their feet wet, but the birds and other wildlife would have moved around freely from one ‘island’ to the other, too. This allowed bird populations on those former islands to interbreed so these once-isolated populations lose the genetic distinctiveness that is necessary to give rise to a new species. Thus, only islands surrounded by deep sea are truly islands in a biogeographic sense, because only these islands provided permanently isolated homes necessary for speciation to occur.

But why don’t birds simply fly across a narrow sound or strait, say, and colonize another forested area? Even when such a forested area is plainly visible, many forest birds avoid flying across open areas such as a stretch of ocean — or even a highway. Those few birds that do end up on an isolated or remote island typically get there after being blown out to sea by a storm, and these misplaced individuals may give rise to new species.

Knowing all this, “two choices popped up: A collection of islands off the southeast arm of Sulawesi (Buton, Muna, Kabaena) or a collection of islands off the east arm (Peleng, Taliabu)”, Professor Rheindt elaborated in email. “All these islands were roughly equally unexplored, and the southeastern islands were slightly larger than the eastern ones, suggesting greater potential for harboring bird species. Yet I decided for the eastern islands because I knew that Buton and Muna were situated on a shelf, divided from Sulawesi by shallow sea.”

“Peleng and Taliabu, on the other hand, are surrounded by deep sea (certainly deeper than 120m), leading to constant isolation”, Professor Rheindt continued in email. “This isolation results in higher extinction levels on the one hand, but whatever species do live on these islands tend to be more special, and not shared with any other place on Earth.”

How did Professor Rheindt obtain the bathymetric data needed to indicate the presence of deep sea between these islands and Sulawesi?

“Back in 2009, it was not as easy to infer sea level depth as it is now”, Professor Rheindt replied in email. “These days, I only need to open Google Earth and direct my cursor to any point in the ocean to see how deep it is. However, there were very rough accounts of sea depths on topographic maps of Indonesia even back then, and they were of a sufficient quality to demonstrate that Buton is less interesting for endemism while Taliabu and Peleng are more interesting.”

Indeed, this novel approach to finding new bird species has been validated by recent reports. For example, a lot of fieldwork has taken place on the island of Buton in the meantime, but this island still doesn’t have a single endemic bird species that we know of, and some of its handful of endemic subspecies are dubious at best. In contrast, the islands of Taliabu and Peleng have 23 endemic bird species at last count — including those newly described by Professor Rheindt and his collaborators — along with a large number of others that were recently upgraded to species level as a direct result of Professor Rheindt’s bioacoustic and molecular work.

Fantails, leaf-warblers, grasshopper-warblers and leaftoilers

Four years after his original solo exploration, Professor Rheindt collected the necessary permits from the Indonesian government and returned to these intriguing islands with a team of scientists from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Whilst awaiting their permits, the team examined accounts by historic naturalists who explored this area, including those written by Wallace, to learn which islands received the least attention and thus, might host the greatest undescribed avian diversity.

The team learned that Taliabu and its nearby islands in the Sula group had been visited only briefly by eight collecting expeditions, and they all remained on the coast, never visiting the interior highlands because of poor accessibility. Peleng and the other islands in the Banggai group were even less explored, having been visited only three times, and once again, these historic expeditions never ventured into the interior highlands.

Professor Rheindt and his team’s expedition lasted from November 2013 until January 2014 and focused on two of the three Wallacean islands, Taliabu and Peleng, that Professor Rheindt originally explored in 2009. Despite the passage of four years, reaching these remote islands was still very difficult.

“Taliabu, the largest and most fruitful island of discovery, is very hard to reach,” Professor Rheindt said in email. “Roughly 130km long and 30km wide, it must be the largest island in Indonesia that still doesn’t have an airport, and no regular passenger ferries go there, so the human communities there are quite isolated as well.”

Nevertheless, Professor Rheindt’s persistence paid off. Most of the birds in the study were found on Taliabu, the highest of the islands that they explored.

“Nine of the ten new birds were actually montane in distribution,” Professor Rheindt said. “They live in the highlands of the islands of Taliabu and Peleng within cloud forest. They range from very colorful ones such as honeyeaters — bright scarlet red that feed on nectar from flowers — to very inconspicuous brown denizens of the undergrowth such as the grasshopper-warbler with its insect-like song.”

How did the team find such small songbirds in the dense cloud forest?

“A number of them were found by sound first,” Professor Rheindt replied. “The grasshopper-warbler is a case in point. I heard it many days before I first got to see it. I heard the insect-like vocalization and I knew I was going to have to stick around and try and see it, but it took a long time because it’s so shy.”

Based on the birds’ distinctive songs, physical features, and DNA, the researchers identified the five new species and five new subspecies (Figure 1). These new species include:

  1. Peleng fantail, Rhipidura habibiei, has a black breast patch and distinct black scaling below it, a white throat and unique courtship vocalisations
  2. Peleng leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus suaramerdu, can be identified by its lack of both a central crown stripe and wingbars, combined with lemon-yellow underparts and a contrasting a white throat
  3. Taliabu grasshopper-warbler, Locustella portenta, has fine dusky speckling which increases toward its breast and lower throat and produces distinct cricket-like vocalisations
  4. Taliabu myzomela, Myzomela wahe, a type of honeyeater, it has a scarlet body and feeds at flowers
  5. Taliabu leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus emilsalimi, named for a former Indonesian environment minister, has bright lemon-yellow underparts

The five new subspecies include:

  1. Togian jungle-flycatcher, Cyornis omissus omississimus
  2. Banggai mountain-leaftoiler, Phyllergates cucullatus relictus
  3. Taliabu snowy-browed flycatcher, Ficedula hyperythra betinabiru
  4. Taliabu Island thrush, Turdus poliocephalus sukahujan
  5. Sula mountain-leaftoiler, Phyllergates cucullatus sulanus

These discoveries are the largest number of new species identified in such a small and restricted geographic region in more than 100 years.

“It’s a real surprise to see that in the 21st century there’s still a place on Earth, a relatively limited area, where there are five new subspecies and five news species of birds to be found,” Professor Rheindt said in email. “It goes to show that there are still many areas on Earth that are underexplored.”

Indeed: it’s been estimated that approximately 86% of living species on Earth and 91% of species in the world’s oceans remain undescribed, and scientists fear that most of the world’s biodiversity could disappear before we even know it’s there (ref).

Extinction is forever

Photographs of these tropical islands seem to indicate that these island cloud forests that are relatively pristine, but these small densely-forested areas are the exception.

“About eighty percent of the island of Taliabu has been logged multiple times over by logging companies and even if we now go out there and try to preserve the last patches of habitat that are still there, there are the sinister effects of climate change [to deal with]”, Professor Rheindt elaborated.

Noting that all of the newly described birds are montane, Professor Rheindt continued: “They only [occupy] a narrow belt of three hundred elevational meters. With warming temperatures, the elevational zones creep up the mountain and there’s nowhere else to go but up the mountain in future decades.”

However, as the planet continues to warm, the birds will run out of mountain.

Further, droughts and wildfires have set in, similar to those in Australia. Of particular concern is the tiny Taliabu grasshopper-warbler, Professor Rheindt’s favorite amongst these newly described birds, which is now squeezed into a small remnant of its original highland habitat. This particular species “might not survive beyond a few decades,” Professor Rheindt said.

“So in the future, the pessimist in me tells me that some of these birds may not survive another three or four decades unless the human communities around the world effect dramatic changes.”

These dramatic changes include, but are not limited to, immediately reducing carbon emissions to alter the course of climate change and of course, preventing more global habitat loss and forest loss.

“In the year 2019, it became abundantly clear – even to the last person on Earth – that our planet has entered a new stage of crisis”, Professor Rheindt warned in email. “We will experience massive levels of biodiversity loss over the next few decades. We have limited resources to combat this, but in order to conserve biodiversity, we must know where it is. Which are the islands that have lots of endemic species worth saving versus islands that are not particularly unique? The world needs a renaissance in biodiversity discovery, and quickly, before some of these species go extinct.”

Source:

Frank E. Rheindt, Dewi M. Prawiradilaga, Hidayat Ashari, Suparno, Chyi Yin Gwee, Geraldine W. X. Lee, Meng Yue Wu, and Nathaniel S. R. Ng (2020). A lost world in Wallacea: Description of a montane archipelagic avifauna, Science, published online on 9 January 2020 ahead of print | doi:10.1126/science.aba3798

“>

Ten new species and subspecies of birds, with distinct songs and genetics, have been discovered on three tiny under-explored islands off Indonesia’s eastern coast

12_JAE_highres

Adult male Togian jungle-flycatcher (Cyornis omissus omississimus) was discovered on the islands of … [+] Togian and Batudaka in the Togian Archipelago, a group of islands between the northern and eastern peninsulas of Sulawesi.
(Credit: James Eaton / Birdtour Asia)

James Eaton / Birdtour Asia

Birds are the best-known taxonomic group of animals on Earth, with almost 11,000 described species, and yet, scientists still discover an average of five or six new species every year. But this year, an international team of scientists surpassed this annual average: they’ve just published a scientific paper where they describe ten birds that are new to science that live on three under-explored South Pacific islands. These islands — Taliabu, Peleng and Batudaka — are located in one tiny area of the planet, a region off the eastern coast of Sulawesi, Indonesia, known as Wallacea. This designation was derived from British naturalist and explorer Alfred Russel Wallace (1823 – 1913), who explored and conducted extensive fieldwork in this area of the South Pacific Ocean during the 19th century. Wallace was the co-discoverer, along with Charles Darwin, of the Theory of Evolution and, as if that was not enough, he also discovered the scientific field of Island Biogeography.

Wallacea is a fascinating part of the world where Asia and Australia meet. This region is also known as the Malay Archipelago (see detail inset, Figure 1). It is sprinkled with many hundreds of small shallow-water Indonesian island chains that are mostly of volcanic origin separated by deep-water straits that lie between the colliding Asian and Australian continental plates. Deep-water trenches separate this Indonesian archipelago into two distinct zoogeographical regions: a western portion in which the animals are largely of Asian origin, and an eastern portion where the fauna originated from Australia. This faunal divide that runs through Wallacea is known as Wallace’s Line.

It is here, on a few small islands nestled next to the spindly, spidery arms of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, where an international team of scientists discovered five new species and five new subspecies of birds in just one six-week expedition.

New bird discoveries stem from insights into island biogeography

Although the history of glacial land connections is a well-known fact that has been appreciated by many people — as well as by many ornithologists — for scores of decades, I’ve never heard of anyone adopting insights gathered from sea level depth specifically to find new species. But the inspiration for devising this novel and innovative approach to locate new species stemmed from necessity.

“In 2009 at the end of my PhD, when I was a much younger man, I had a spare month for some ornithological exploration, and I wanted to invest it well”, said lead author and evolutionary and conservation biologist, Frank Rheindt, an Associate Professor at the National University of Singapore. His special focus is using a variety of genomic techniques combined with good old-fashioned field work to discover and characterize cryptic bird species that are new to science.

As he traveled around Sulawesi, the newly-minted PhD wanted to explore some of its nearby islands and look for new bird species. But because there are so many islands to choose from, how could he narrow down his choices to only those islands that might have more endemic species that are not shared with any other landmass on Earth before visiting them? Professor Rheindt looked to island biogeography to inform his choices.

Not all islands are truly islands in the biogeographic sense because global sea levels can recede by as much as 120 meters (394 feet) during ice ages. Thus, small islands on continental shelves or in shallow seas would have been mountain tops on a larger contiguous land mass as recently as 15,000 years ago. Not only could modern humans walk from one ‘island’ (mountain top) to the other without getting their feet wet, but the birds and other wildlife would have moved around freely from one ‘island’ to the other, too. This allowed bird populations on those former islands to interbreed so these once-isolated populations lose the genetic distinctiveness that is necessary to give rise to a new species. Thus, only islands surrounded by deep sea are truly islands in a biogeographic sense, because only these islands provided permanently isolated homes necessary for speciation to occur.

But why don’t birds simply fly across a narrow sound or strait, say, and colonize another forested area? Even when such a forested area is plainly visible, many forest birds avoid flying across open areas such as a stretch of ocean — or even a highway. Those few birds that do end up on an isolated or remote island typically get there after being blown out to sea by a storm, and these misplaced individuals may give rise to new species.

Knowing all this, “two choices popped up: A collection of islands off the southeast arm of Sulawesi (Buton, Muna, Kabaena) or a collection of islands off the east arm (Peleng, Taliabu)”, Professor Rheindt elaborated in email. “All these islands were roughly equally unexplored, and the southeastern islands were slightly larger than the eastern ones, suggesting greater potential for harboring bird species. Yet I decided for the eastern islands because I knew that Buton and Muna were situated on a shelf, divided from Sulawesi by shallow sea.”

“Peleng and Taliabu, on the other hand, are surrounded by deep sea (certainly deeper than 120m), leading to constant isolation”, Professor Rheindt continued in email. “This isolation results in higher extinction levels on the one hand, but whatever species do live on these islands tend to be more special, and not shared with any other place on Earth.”

How did Professor Rheindt obtain the bathymetric data needed to indicate the presence of deep sea between these islands and Sulawesi?

“Back in 2009, it was not as easy to infer sea level depth as it is now”, Professor Rheindt replied in email. “These days, I only need to open Google Earth and direct my cursor to any point in the ocean to see how deep it is. However, there were very rough accounts of sea depths on topographic maps of Indonesia even back then, and they were of a sufficient quality to demonstrate that Buton is less interesting for endemism while Taliabu and Peleng are more interesting.”

Peleng island Hill Forest Philippe Verbelen sulawesi indonesia

Cloud forest, Peleng Island. Peleng is a well forested and mountainous island off the east coast of … [+] the Luwuk Peninsula of Sulawesi. It is the largest island in the Banggai Islands group, and is surrounded by the Banda Sea and Molucca Sea.
(Credit: Philippe Verbelen)

Philippe Verbelen

Indeed, this novel approach to finding new bird species has been validated by recent reports. For example, a lot of fieldwork has taken place on the island of Buton in the meantime, but this island still doesn’t have a single endemic bird species that we know of, and some of its handful of endemic subspecies are dubious at best. In contrast, the islands of Taliabu and Peleng have 23 endemic bird species at last count — including those newly described by Professor Rheindt and his collaborators — along with a large number of others that were recently upgraded to species level as a direct result of Professor Rheindt’s bioacoustic and molecular work.

Fantails, leaf-warblers, grasshopper-warblers and leaftoilers

Four years after his original solo exploration, Professor Rheindt collected the necessary permits from the Indonesian government and returned to these intriguing islands with a team of scientists from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Whilst awaiting their permits, the team examined accounts by historic naturalists who explored this area, including those written by Wallace, to learn which islands received the least attention and thus, might host the greatest undescribed avian diversity.

The team learned that Taliabu and its nearby islands in the Sula group had been visited only briefly by eight collecting expeditions, and they all remained on the coast, never visiting the interior highlands because of poor accessibility. Peleng and the other islands in the Banggai group were even less explored, having been visited only three times, and once again, these historic expeditions never ventured into the interior highlands.

Professor Rheindt and his team’s expedition lasted from November 2013 until January 2014 and focused on two of the three Wallacean islands, Taliabu and Peleng, that Professor Rheindt originally explored in 2009. Despite the passage of four years, reaching these remote islands was still very difficult.

“Taliabu, the largest and most fruitful island of discovery, is very hard to reach,” Professor Rheindt said in email. “Roughly 130km long and 30km wide, it must be the largest island in Indonesia that still doesn’t have an airport, and no regular passenger ferries go there, so the human communities there are quite isolated as well.”

Nevertheless, Professor Rheindt’s persistence paid off. Most of the birds in the study were found on Taliabu, the highest of the islands that they explored.

“Nine of the ten new birds were actually montane in distribution,” Professor Rheindt said. “They live in the highlands of the islands of Taliabu and Peleng within cloud forest. They range from very colorful ones such as honeyeaters — bright scarlet red that feed on nectar from flowers — to very inconspicuous brown denizens of the undergrowth such as the grasshopper-warbler with its insect-like song.”

Figure1

Fig. 1. Map of Sulawesi and satellite islands, with the fieldwork localities on Togian, Peleng, and … [+] Taliabu depicted by pink, purple, and yellow circles, respectively. The blue dotted line on the main map reflects the ~120-m isobath, roughly indicating land extent during glacial maxima. The map inset shows the Indonesian Archipelago, with the Wallacean region demarcated by a black dashed line. Photos representing each newly described taxon (labeled by their proposed English names), including three type specimens (aligned against rulers), are color coded with their respective island distribution. The seven live bird photos do not depict type specimens and were taken by photographers on independent visits to the islands. [Photos courtesy of James A. Eaton (JAE), Peter R. Wilton (PRW), and Philippe Verbelen (PV)]
(Credit: Frank E. Rheindt et al., Science, doi:10.1126/science.aax2146)

Frank E. Rheindt et al., Science, doi:10.1126/science.aax2146

How did the team find such small songbirds in the dense cloud forest?

“A number of them were found by sound first,” Professor Rheindt replied. “The grasshopper-warbler is a case in point. I heard it many days before I first got to see it. I heard the insect-like vocalization and I knew I was going to have to stick around and try and see it, but it took a long time because it’s so shy.”

Based on the birds’ distinctive songs, physical features, and DNA, the researchers identified the five new species and five new subspecies (Figure 1). These new species include:

  1. Peleng fantail, Rhipidura habibiei, has a black breast patch and distinct black scaling below it, a white throat and unique courtship vocalisations
  2. Peleng leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus suaramerdu, can be identified by its lack of both a central crown stripe and wingbars, combined with lemon-yellow underparts and a contrasting a white throat
  3. Taliabu grasshopper-warbler, Locustella portenta, has fine dusky speckling which increases toward its breast and lower throat and produces distinct cricket-like vocalisations
  4. Taliabu myzomela, Myzomela wahe, a type of honeyeater, it has a scarlet body and feeds at flowers
  5. Taliabu leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus emilsalimi, named for a former Indonesian environment minister, has bright lemon-yellow underparts

The five new subspecies include:

  1. Togian jungle-flycatcher, Cyornis omissus omississimus
  2. Banggai mountain-leaftoiler, Phyllergates cucullatus relictus
  3. Taliabu snowy-browed flycatcher, Ficedula hyperythra betinabiru
  4. Taliabu Island thrush, Turdus poliocephalus sukahujan
  5. Sula mountain-leaftoiler, Phyllergates cucullatus sulanus

TaliabuMyzomelaJamesEaton

The scarlet-bodied Taliabu myzomela (Myzomela wahe), is a type of honeyeater that inhabits forest … [+] canopy and feeds at flowers.
(Credit: James Eaton / Birdtour Asia)

James Eaton / Birdtour Asia

These discoveries are the largest number of new species identified in such a small and restricted geographic region in more than 100 years.

“It’s a real surprise to see that in the 21st century there’s still a place on Earth, a relatively limited area, where there are five new subspecies and five news species of birds to be found,” Professor Rheindt said in email. “It goes to show that there are still many areas on Earth that are underexplored.”

Indeed: it’s been estimated that approximately 86% of living species on Earth and 91% of species in the world’s oceans remain undescribed, and scientists fear that most of the world’s biodiversity could disappear before we even know it’s there (ref).

TaliabuGrasshopperWarblerJamesEaton

Scientists are especially concerned about the newly-described Taliabu grasshopper-warbler … [+] (Locustella portenta), whose habitat may have shrunk to a few square kilometers due to logging and wildfires.
(Credit: James Eaton / Birdtour Asia)

James Eaton / Birdtour Asia

Extinction is forever

Photographs of these tropical islands seem to indicate that these island cloud forests that are relatively pristine, but these small densely-forested areas are the exception.

“About eighty percent of the island of Taliabu has been logged multiple times over by logging companies and even if we now go out there and try to preserve the last patches of habitat that are still there, there are the sinister effects of climate change [to deal with]”, Professor Rheindt elaborated.

Taliabu cloud forest Bram Demeulemeester

Degraded montane cloud forest on the island of Taliabu.
(Credit: Bram Demeulemeester.)

Bram Demeulemeester

Noting that all of the newly described birds are montane, Professor Rheindt continued: “They only [occupy] a narrow belt of three hundred elevational meters. With warming temperatures, the elevational zones creep up the mountain and there’s nowhere else to go but up the mountain in future decades.”

However, as the planet continues to warm, the birds will run out of mountain.

Further, droughts and wildfires have set in, similar to those in Australia. Of particular concern is the tiny Taliabu grasshopper-warbler, Professor Rheindt’s favorite amongst these newly described birds, which is now squeezed into a small remnant of its original highland habitat. This particular species “might not survive beyond a few decades,” Professor Rheindt said.

“So in the future, the pessimist in me tells me that some of these birds may not survive another three or four decades unless the human communities around the world effect dramatic changes.”

These dramatic changes include, but are not limited to, immediately reducing carbon emissions to alter the course of climate change and of course, preventing more global habitat loss and forest loss.

“In the year 2019, it became abundantly clear – even to the last person on Earth – that our planet has entered a new stage of crisis”, Professor Rheindt warned in email. “We will experience massive levels of biodiversity loss over the next few decades. We have limited resources to combat this, but in order to conserve biodiversity, we must know where it is. Which are the islands that have lots of endemic species worth saving versus islands that are not particularly unique? The world needs a renaissance in biodiversity discovery, and quickly, before some of these species go extinct.”

Source:

Frank E. Rheindt, Dewi M. Prawiradilaga, Hidayat Ashari, Suparno, Chyi Yin Gwee, Geraldine W. X. Lee, Meng Yue Wu, and Nathaniel S. R. Ng (2020). A lost world in Wallacea: Description of a montane archipelagic avifauna, Science, published online on 9 January 2020 ahead of print | doi:10.1126/science.aba3798

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