“Everything that I do in this development, he is a part of, and I mean that literally,” Ms. Johnson said.
Despite her traction with progressive groups, Ms. Biaggi has struggled to amass a significant fraction of Mr. Klein’s war chest. According to state election filings, she has raised $445,000 to his $1.9 million. (He has also spent money left over from previous campaigns.)
Last month, he took a $100,000 contribution from a campaign fund-raising committee set up by the state’s Independence Party on behalf of I.D.C. members. In July, the state’s top election enforcement officerordered the former members to return hundreds of thousands of dollarsfrom the committee. A month earlier, a State Supreme Court justice had ruled the fund-raising arrangement improper.
As in most elections, outcomes will hinge on turnout. Primaries usually yield low turnouts, which tends to favor incumbents. But this year could be different.
“In the Trump era, the progressives are more energized,” said Mr. Picoulas, the Pace University lecturer. “I wouldn’t be surprised if the turnout in this year’s primary is higher than four years ago.”
All of the former I.D.C. members are facing primary challenges. In the 13th District in Queens, Jessica Ramos, a former aide to Mayor Bill de Blasio, is opposing Senator Jose R. Peralta. In central Brooklyn’s 20th District, Senator Jesse Hamilton is facing a challenge from Zellnor Myrie, a lawyer and housing advocate.
Elsewhere in New York City, Jasmine Robinson, a legal secretary and community activist, is taking on Senator Diane J. Savino in the 23rd District, which covers parts of Staten Island and Brooklyn. The former city comptroller, John C. Liu, is challenging Senator Tony Avella in the 11th District in Queens, and Senator Marisol Alcantara is defending her seat against Robert Jackson, a former city councilman, in the 31st District in western Manhattan.
Outside the city, Senator David Carlucci, whose 38th District includes parts of Rockland and Westchester Counties, is fending off an insurgent campaign by Julie Goldberg, a librarian and writer. In upstate New York, Rachel May, who directs sustainability education at Syracuse University, is trying to unseat Senator David Valesky in the 53rd district.